How does an amino acid get its name?

How does an amino acid get its name?

Fitness

amino acid| How does an amino acid get its name?

How does an amino acid get its name?
How does an amino acid get its name?

Introduction:

In this article I will discuss about how does an amino get its name. acid Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine group (-NH2) and carboxyl functional groups (-COOH) along. A side chain (-R) that is specific for each amino acid. Amino acids play an important role in the process of gene expression (translation) while working with the messenger RNA (mRNA).  About 500 amino acids are known till now but only 20 amino acids participate in the protein formation. Amino acids as the building block of proteins form the second most abundant component of the human body that is about 50% of the dry weight of the body cell. In this article, the discussion will be all about the amino acids.

Types of amino acids:|How does an amino acid get its name?

There are total 20 amino acids forming the proteins. Depending upon varying features, amino acids are divided into 3 types;

  • Essential amino acids
  • Non-essential amino acids
  • Conditionally essential amino acids

Essential amino acids:|How does an amino acid get its name?

Essential amino acids are those amino acids that are not produced by our body but have to be supplied through diets. If they are not supplied through diet, their deficiency may occur that will lead to many complications. Essential amino acids are nine in number out of the 20 amino acids. These amino acids are:

  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Lysine
  • Threonine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Tryptophan
  • Histidine

Non-essential amino acids:

Non-essential amino acids are those that are not require through diet and can be prepared by the human body. Normally, their deficiency doesn’t occur as they are being replenished and prepared by the human’s own body. These amino acids are 11 in number. These include:

  • Asparagine
  • Alanine
  • Arginine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Glutamine
  • Proline
  • Glycine
  • Tyrosine
  • Serine

Conditionally essential amino acids:

It is that type of amino acid in which a non-essential amino acid becomes essential depending on the diseased condition. This situation only occurs in a pathetic condition, it normally doesn’t occur.

For example:

In the disease of phenylketonuria, the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase converts the phenylalanine into tyrosine but when the enzyme becomes dysfunction, it is not converted into tyrosine that is a non-essential amino acid but in this condition it becomes essential and has to be supplied through diet.

Another classification of amino acids:

Amino acids can be classified into some other types:

Glycogenic amino acids:

Glycogenic amino acids are those that are degraded to pyruvate or citric acid cycle intermediates e.g pyruvate, alpha-ketglutarate, Succinyl-CoA, Fumarate, Oxaloacetate, that can supply gluconeogenesis pathway.

For example:

  • Alanine
  • Cytosine
  • Glycine
  • Serine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Asparagine
  • Aspartate
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamine
  • Histidine
  • Proline
  • Isoleucine
  • Methionine
  • valine

Ketogenic amino acids:

Ketogenic amino acids are those that are degrade to acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA) – can contribute to synthesis of fatty acids or ketone bodies. Theses amino acid includes:

For example:

  • Isoleucine
  • Threonine
  • Lysine
  • Leucine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Tryptophan
  • Some amino acids have both glycogenic and ketogenic.

Chemical reactions:

Peptide bond formation: Amino acids are join by peptide bonds with the elimination of water molecule to form dipeptides, polypeptides and proteins. The peptide bond is form between two amino acids. When the amino group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group of another amino acid with the exclusion of the water molecule. The new bond that is form is of the “C-N” type and is know as peptide bond.

Role of Amino Acids:

In industry:

Amino acids are used in many industrial processes but their main role is their use as additive to animal feed. Soybeans are rich in essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine etc are the main component of such feeds. The amino acids are add to these feeds to enhance the absorption of the minerals from the supplements that may be require to improve the health and production of these animals. In food industry glutamic acid is use as a flavor enhancer and aspartame is use as an artificial sweetener.

In human nutrition:|How does an amino acid get its name? 

When the 20 amino acids are take into the human body through diet, there are use to make the protein and code the message of DNA through reading the codons on mRNA. The required amounts of amino acids depend upon age and health of the individual. The deficiencies of amino acids have been link to serious diseases.

Conclusion:

So, in a nutshell amino acids are essential components of the proteins. Play many important roles.

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