Fats and oils | importance of fats and oils in our diet:
Fats and oils are most important components of our diet. Due to rich in calories they are most important to gain proper energy. In this article I will completely discuss about fats and oils, types of fats, difference between fat and oil, saturated fat, unsaturated fat trans-fat, importance of fat in our body and side effects of excessive use of fats and oils. In this article I will focus on nutritional value of fats and oils instead of Biochemically structure and fate of fats and oils.
What are Fats and oils?
Fats and oils are simple lipids. Chemically fats and oils are composed by mixing of glycerol and fatty acids.
They may have three types according to number of glycerol in formula.
What is mono-glyceride?
If chemical formula of fat is one molecule of fatty acid and one molecule of glycerol.
What is di-glyceride?
If chemical formula of fat is one molecule of fatty acid and two molecule of glycerol.
What is tri-glyceride?
As we know that the word tri means three, If chemical formula of fats is one molecule of fatty acid and three molecules of glycerol.
Types of fatty acids:
According to the structural formula fatty acids are classified into three types:
Saturated fatty acids
Unsaturated fatty acids
Trans Fatty acids
What are saturated fats?
Saturated fats are type of fats, The fats that contain all single bonds in their structure are called saturated fatty acids. Their general formula is CnH2nO2. They contain higher number of hydrogen atoms in their structure formula.
Characteristics of saturated:
They have higher melting
Animal Saturated fat increase blood cholesterol level
They have no double bond in their structure
What are unsaturated fats?
Unsaturated are type of fats, The fats that contain one or more double or more than two double bonds in their structure are called unsaturated fats. Their general formula is CnH2n-3.COOH. They contain low number of hydrogen bond.
There are further two classes of unsaturated fatty acids.
Mono unsaturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids:
The fatty acids that contain only one double bond in their structure are called Monounsaturated fatty acids.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids:
Fats that contain more than one double bond in their structure are called polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Characteristics of Unsaturated fats:
They have lower melting point
According to some experiments they decrease cholesterol in body
They have double bond in their structure and have less number of hydrogen as compare to saturated fatty acids.
Some fats are Trans fats, that produced in artificially. They may be naturally produced in some animals.
Importance of fats and oil in our body:
Fats are used to intake higher calories in body. Because we know that they are rich in calories. They give a 9 kcal per gram. So to intake higher energy we use fats and oils.
Some essential nutrients are present in fats and oils, some essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic fatty acids are present in fats.
Increase food taste and palatability:
They dissolve flavors and make food attractive and increase palatability of food. They also give lubrication and slippery to food and it is easier to swallow.
Fat Soluble vitamins:
They also contain fat soluble vitamins. Such as vitamin A, D, E and K. These vitamins are most important for proper functioning of body.
They are slow to digestion. So they give feeling of satiety.
Important in development:
Fats and oils are important to form many organs in our body, such as retina. They are also important for the development of central nervous system. They are also important for the rigidity of cell membrane. Because they contain fatty acids and Cholesterols.
Fats and oils are important to maintain body shape. Reserve fats store in adipose tissues.
Excessive use of fats and oils:
Excessive use of fats and oils may cause obesity and obesity is mother of disease.
At the end we can say that fats and oils are most important for our body but their excessive use is harmful. They are important to perform many functions of body.