Surgery for obesity

Surgery for obesity

surgeryobesityA well-known American comedian admitted that she resorted to bariatric surgery to lose weight . She is not the only one, of course.
The way of the scalpel is still the most suitable one today against severe obesity, when the patient has to lose a lot of weight in a short time, and is in any case associated with a diet before and after surgery.
Bariatric surgery is obviously the most invasive way to fight obesity,but often it is an intervention <strong> necessary for the patient’s life </strong>. There are certainly advantages and disadvantages, but above all it is good to inquire about what type of intervention is right for our case. The patient’s state of health and conformation, the weight loss goal (how many kilos and within how long?) And a picture of possible side effects come into play. Therefore, it is vital to inquire before considering bariatric surgery and the type of surgery . Here are the main types of surgery to combat obesity with a scalpel. First, surgery can be of three types: restrictive surgery (laparoscopic gastric band) and malabsorptive surgery (gastric bypass or tubulation to limit food absorption) or with mixed techniques. Let’s see briefly the individual characteristics of the interventions to give a general picture.

The gastric band or banding: it is the least invasive procedure, it consists in the introduction of a gastric pocket in the stomach , which allows a slow emptying of the stomach and a lower absorption of food. The operation, which is rather simple, is usually associated with a solid diet that the patient must follow.
The complications are not so much in the surgery, but in the post-operative: vomiting and other malabsorption effects are frequent in patients with a gastric band. The pocket could also deform, expanding.
Sleeve gastrectomy or partial vertical gastrectomy: it is a more aggressive operation in which a part of the stomach is cut to allow the patient to be satisfied with less food. In the long term, this allows the patient to lose weight, who eats less little by little. It is a restrictive intervention, which can be associated with a malabsorptive intervention, such as biliopancreatic diversion . It is an irreversible operation, since the structure of the stomach is changed, and often requires a diet.
Gastric bypass:it is a mixed intervention, both restrictive and malabsorptive, therefore very invasive. It is used in severe cases of obesity: generally the upper part of the stomach is isolated through a pocket, creating an antrum to collect food, which however bypasses the rest of the stomach and part of the intestine. This leap of part of the stomach, and the fact that food is collected only in a pocket, therefore in a limited space, allows both an immediate sense of satiety and less absorption. There are many side effects, including the risk of pocket gangrene and cases of hernia.
Biliopancreatic diversion:it is a malabsorptive intervention, so the patient no longer absorbs complex fats and sugars. It consists in the reduction of the stomach by section or through a ring and in the removal of the gallbladder. Being a complicated and irreversiible operation, the risk of death in some cases reaches 5%.

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