Wednesday, June 12 2024

PARKINSON DISEASE

Parkinson's disease Fast Fitness

PARKINSON DISEASE

Definition:

It is a movement disorder. The body does not make enough of an important chemical called dopamine. This insufficient amount of dopamine generates a movement disorder progressively, making it difficult and worsening the quality of life of the patient.

Etiology:

The cause of this disease appears to be genetic and it usually develops after the age of 60 in most cases.

Anatomical memory:

 Dopamine: Neurotransmitter that is generated in the gray matter and is essential for the proper functioning of the CNS.

Its main function is the control of movement by the correct transmission of the nervous stimulus between the nerve cells.

When there is a deficit of dopamine, the nerve cells of the striatum are not activated correctly, which impairs the person’s ability to control movement.

-Basal ganglia: They are a set of brain nuclei that establish working networks with different areas of the cortex. They are responsible for us to link one movement with the next; In other words, they are in charge of the timing and automatic execution of the movement.

-Substancia Negra: It is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain and an important element of the basal ganglia system.

This is where dopamine is generated. In Parkinson’s, the cells responsible for generating dopamine die and there is a deficit of this neurotransmitter causing the problems of this disease.

-Cerebellum: It is a nervous structure with a very large number of neurons. It plays an important role in movement coordination, adaptation and learning.

-Acetylcholine: Neurotransmitter of the motor neurons of the parasympathetic fibers and the sympathetic pre-ganglionic fibers. In the CNS it abounds in the GB, reticular system and motor cortex, being also responsible for muscle stimulation.

A dopamine-acetylcholine imbalance accentuates muscle problems such as tremors, stiffness and coordination that patients with this disease suffer.

Signs and symptoms:

Most symptoms start on one side of the body and later begin to develop on both sides.

Some of these symptoms that can be observed are:

  • Trembling of the hands, jaw and legs.
  • Rigidity
  • Slow movement
  • Lack of balance and coordination.

The evolution of this disease is progressive and with the passage of time more important symptoms can be added such as difficulty walking, doing simple tasks, chewing, swallowing …

In some cases, this disease can be associated with cases of problems in the form of depression and sleep disorder. (Influence of dopamine)

Treatment:

There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. Some of the most commonly used treatments are medications and surgery.

Proper treatment of Parkinson’s disease improves the functional capacity of the patient and reduces the long-term complications of the disease.

Pharmacological:

  • Anticholinergics: They act on the CNS and reduce tremors. Eg Levadopa (It transforms into dopamine)
  • Dopamine agonists: They act directly on the dopamine receptors in the brain and improve the function that we have.

Surgical*:

* This type of treatment will be used in some cases when the drug is not working as expected.

Parkinson and EMS:

Physical activity for patients with Parkinson’s is one of the best remedies to treat these types of clients and improve their quality of life.

Regarding training with electro-stimulation, we have to be clear about the problem that working under an involuntary contraction of the muscles can entail for this type of patient.

This type of training together with the problems that this pathology triggers can affect the performance of exercises and voluntary control by the patient.

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